An operational semantics of bpmn collaboration

In the last years we are observing a growing interest in formalising the execution semantics of business process modelling languages that, despite their lack of formal characterisation, are widely adopted in industry and academia. Specifically, we provide a direct formalisation of its operational semantics in terms of Labelled Transition Systems LTS. This approach permits both to avoid possible miss-interpretations due to the usage of the natural language in the specification of the standard, and to overcome issues due to the mapping of BPMN to other formal languages, which are equipped with their own semantics.

In addition, it paves the way for the use of consolidated formal reasoning techniques based on LTS e. Our operational semantics is given for a relevant subset of BPMN elements focusing on the capability to model collaborations among organisations via message exchange. Moreover, one of its distinctive aspects is the suitability to model business processes with arbitrary topology.

This allows designers to freely specify their processes according to the reality without the need of defining well-structured models. We illustrate our approach through a simple, yet realistic, running example about commercial transactions.

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an operational semantics of bpmn collaboration

Suggested articles.The increasing adoption of modelling methods contributes to a better understanding of the flow of processes, from the internal behaviour of a single organisation to a wider perspective where several organisations exchange messages. In this regard, BPMN collaboration is a suitable modelling abstraction. Even if this is a widely accepted notation, only a limited effort has been expended in formalising its semantics, especially for what it concerns the interplay among control features, data handling and exchange of messages in scenarios requiring multiple instances of interacting participants.

an operational semantics of bpmn collaboration

In this paper, we face the problem of providing a formal semantics for BPMN collaborations including multiple instances, while taking into account the data perspective. Beyond defining a novel formalisation, we also provide a BPMN collaboration animator tool faithfully implementing the formal semantics.

Its visualisation facilities support designers in debugging multi-instance collaboration models. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. International Conference on Business Process Management.

Conference paper First Online: 11 August This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Suchenia, A. SCI, vol. Springer, Cham Dijkman, R. Decker, G. In: Dumas, M. BPM LNCS, vol. Springer, Heidelberg Wong, P. In: Liu, S. ICFEM Advances in Software Engineering. Van Gorp, P. Hermann, A. In: WI, pp. Becker, J. Emens, R. In: Reichert, M. LNBIP, vol. Momotko, M. In: DEXA, pp.The BPMN 2. Different diagrams are made available to represent such perspectives. Choreography diagrams represent global constraints concerning the interactions among system components without exposing their internal structure.

an operational semantics of bpmn collaboration

Collaboration diagrams depict the internal behaviour of a component, also referred as process, when integrated with others so to represent a possible implementation of the distributed system. This paper proposes a design methodology and a formal framework for checking conformance of choreographies against collaborations. In particular, the paper presents a direct formal operational semantics for both BPMN choreography and collaboration diagrams. Conformance aspects are proposed through two relations defined on top of the defined semantics.

The approach benefits from the availability of a tool we have developed, named C4, that permits to experiment the theoretical framework in a practical context. The objective here is to make the exploited formal methods transparent to systems designers, thus fostering a wider adoption of them by practitioners. This topic is empty. Log In Register Lost Password. You must be logged in to reply to this topic. Keep me signed in. Log In.It combines the intuitive flowchart modeling style of BPMN with the rigorous semantics provided by the event scheduling arrows of Event Graphs and the event rules of the Object Event Modeling and Simulation paradigm.

A DPMN model has a formal semantics in terms of an Abstract State Machine whose state structure is defined by an object-oriented signature and whose transitions are defined by event rules capturing causal regularities.

It supports two types of diagrams: event rule design diagrams and process design diagramswhich consist of an integrated set of event rule design diagrams. DPMN's formal semantics is obtained by considering a DPMN process design model as a composition of event rule design models specifying a set of event rules that act as transition functions such that the Abstract State Machine semantics proposed in [ 2 ] can be applied.

In MDE, there is a clear distinction between three kinds of models as engineering artifacts resulting from corresponding activities in the analysis, design and implementation phases of a development project:.

Rather, they focus on the perspective and language of the subject matter experts for the domain under consideration. In the design phase, a platform-independent solution design model is developed on the basis of the domain model, consisting of an information design model and a process design model. The same domain model can potentially be used to produce a number of even radically different design models.

Then, one or more platform-specific implementation models can be derived from a design model. These one-to-many relationships between conceptual models, design models and implementation models are illustrated in Figure 1. Conceptual information modeling is mainly concerned with describing the relevant entity types of a domain and the relationships between them, while information design modeling is concerned with describing the logical platform-independent data structures, typically in the form of classes of an Object-Oriented OO modeling language like UML Class Diagrams, for designing and implementing a software or simulation system.

This is shown in the model of Figure 1. The Business Process Modeling Notation BPMN is an activity-based graphical modeling language for defining business processes following the flow-chart metaphor. Inthe Object Management Group has released version 2. Something that 'happens' during the course of a processaffecting the process flow. There are three types of Events, based on when they affect the flow : a Start Event is drawn as a circle with a thin border line, while an Intermediate Event has a double border line and an End Event has a thick border line.

Work that is performed within a Business Process. A Sub-Process can be either in a collapsed or in an expanded view. A Gateway is a node for branching or merging control flows.

A Gateway can have both input and output flows. An arrow expressing the temporal order of Events, Activities, and Gateways. A Conditional Sequence Flow arrow starts with a diamond and is annotated with a condition in brackets. However, BPMN has several semantic issues and is not expressive enough for making platform-independent computationally complete process design models that can be used for designing DES models and as a basis for obtaining implementation models that allow generating code for specific process automation platforms.

Ontologically, BPMN activities or, more precisely, activity types are special event types. However, the subsumption of activities under events is not supported by the standard semantics of BPMN. This is one of the issues where BPMN needs to be improved for allowing a more general process modeling semantics.

BPMN supports the utilization of resources by an Activity.

an operational semantics of bpmn collaboration

As in classical workflow modeling, a possibly human Performer is treated as a special case of a Resource Role. A Pool represents a Collaboration Participant. A Pool can be partitioned into Laneswhich may be used for representing the different actors activity performers acting in the same domain of control.

Other activity resources, such as a room, a desk or a vehicle, cannot be visually expressed in BPMN. In DES, an activity type may be associated with resource roles, typically including an actor. A discrete processing activity type is, in addition, associated with one or more processing object types. Typically, processing objects arrive and queue up at a resource where they wait to be processed by the actor s. We can say that arriving processing objects trigger the performance of a processing activity.

Since BPMN has no concept of processing objectsit cannot adequately model processing activities and processing processes. Processing objects are like BPMN tokens : they flow through a sequence of nodes. But while a processing object is a first-class modeling element in DES, a token is [just] a theoretical concept that is used as an aid to define the behavior of a Processas stated on p. This implies that BPMN does not have a precise semantics, but rather two semantics: a widely adopted informal semantics defined by Process Modeling Conformanceand a rarely adopted formal one based on Petri-net-style token flowswhich is limited to case handling processes where each start event represents a new case and starts a new process for handling this case in isolation from other cases.

This semantics disallows, for instance, to model processes where several cases are handled in parallel and interact in some way, e.The BPMN 2. Different diagrams are made available to represent such perspectives. Choreography diagrams represent global constraints concerning the interactions among system components without exposing their internal structure. Collaboration diagrams depict the internal behaviour of a component, also referred as process, when integrated with others so to represent a possible implementation of the distributed system.

This paper proposes a design methodology and a formal framework for checking conformance of choreographies against collaborations.

In particular, the paper presents a direct formal operational semantics for both BPMN choreography and collaboration diagrams. Conformance aspects are proposed through two relations defined on top of the defined semantics. The approach benefits from the availability of a tool we have developed, named C4, that permits to experiment the theoretical framework in a practical context.

The objective here is to make the exploited formal methods transparent to systems designers, thus fostering a wider adoption of them by practitioners. Flavio Corradini. Andrea Morichetta.

A Classification of BPMN Collaborations based on Safeness and Soundness Notions

Andrea Polini. Barbara Re. Francesco Tiezzi. Deadlock and nondeterminism may become increasingly hard to detect in co The enormous number of states reachable during explicit model checking i Interaction languages such as UML sequence diagrams are often associated Turi and Plotkin's bialgebraic semantics is an abstract approach to spec This paper presents a novel methodological framework by which the effect Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.

The 2. In particular, Choreography diagrams are meant to represent the interactions among system components without exposing their internal structure. Collaboration diagrams, instead, can be used to describe the internal behaviour of multiple components integrated to compose a distributed system. In such a setting, organisations that are willing to cooperate can refer to a choreography specification detailing how they should interact to reach specific objectives. On the other hand, the cooperation generally involves components of software systems for which the behaviour is specified, by the participating organisations, using specific process diagrams that will also include details on the internal actions of the system.

The integration of such processes leads to a so-called collaboration. Nevertheless, a collaboration that integrates different processes to reach the objectives specified in a choreography should show a behaviour somehow related to that defined by the global specification. The conformance of a given collaboration with respect to a pre-established choreography becomes then crucial, since it permits to ensure that the system components are able to successfully collaborate without invalidating the communication constraints imposed by the global specification, so to reach the objectives defined by the choreography.

In particular, in our approach we do not resort to a different intermediate language or formalism; instead we rely on a direct semantics describing the behaviour of both models.

Mastering jBPM6 by

Clearly, such semantics embeds the peculiarities of the standard when used to model distributed systems e. A collaboration and a choreography can then be compared to check the satisfaction of specific behavioural relations, considering the LTSs resulting from the defined semantic framework.

We rely on a conformance relation based on bisimulation [ Mil89Sec. The support of both kinds of relations allows the system designer to decide the desired trade-off between the strength of the properties ensured by the system, and the breadth of choice among available system components. The developed theoretical framework has been implemented in the C 4 Collaboration vs Choreography Conformance Checker for tool. Standard input formats for the models are accepted by the tool so to enable its integration with external modelling environments e.

The tool permits to hide the underlying formal methods permitting to system designer, not accustomed with formalisms and formal reasoning, to access and use well established theories. Summing up, the major contributions of this paper are as follows: i definition of a design methodology; ii definition, and implementation in Java, of a formal operational semantics for collaborations and choreographies; iii definition, and implementation, of two conformance relations; iv implementation of the C 4 tool supporting the proposed methodology and conformance checking framework.In the last years we are observing a growing interest in formalising the execution semantics of business process modelling languages that, despite their lack of formal characterisation, are widely adopted in industry and academia.

Specifically, we provide a direct formalisation of its operational semantics in terms of Labelled Transition Systems LTS. This approach permits both to avoid possible miss-interpretations due to the usage of the natural language in the specification of the standard, and to overcome issues due to the mapping of BPMN to other formal languages, which are equipped with their own semantics. In addition, it paves the way for the use of consolidated formal reasoning techniques based on LTS e.

Our operational semantics is given for a relevant subset of BPMN elements focusing on the capability to model collaborations among organisations via message exchange. Moreover, one of its distinctive aspects is the suitability to model business processes with arbitrary topology. This allows designers to freely specify their processes according to the reality without the need of defining well-structured models. We illustrate our approach through a simple, yet realistic, running example about commercial transactions.

Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Formal Aspects of Component Software. Conference paper First Online: 29 January This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Lindsay, A.

It’s all about people - Collaboration with Cawemo (CamundaCon 2019)

Reichert, M. Breu, R. In: CBI, pp. Plotkin, G. Dijkman, R. Weske, M. Recker, Jan, Muehlen, M. CAiSE LNCS, vol. Christiansen, D. In: WSFM, pp. Wilmsmann, G. In: Dijkman, R. BPMN LNBIP, vol. Dumas, M. In: Tari, Z. OTMPart I. Sinot, F. In: Urzyczyn, P.

TLCA Kirchner, F. Notes Theor. Van Gorp, P.BPMN 2. It results that providing a solid foundation to enable BPMN designers to understand their models in a consistent way is becoming more and more important.

In our investigation we define and exploit a formal characterisation of the collaborations' semantics, specifically and directly given for BPMN models, to provide a classification of BPMN collaborations. In particular, we refer to collaborations involving processes with arbitrary topology, thus overcoming the well-structuredness limitations.

The proposed classification is based on some of the most important correctness properties in the business process domain, namely safeness and soundness. We prove, with a uniform formal framework, some conjectured and expected results and, most of all, we achieve novel results for BPMN collaborations concerning the relationships between safeness and soundness, and their compositionality, that represent major advances in the state-of-the-art.

Flavio Corradini. Chiara Muzi. Barbara Re. Francesco Tiezzi. Many definitions of business processes refer to business goals, value cr This work presents a fully elaborated ontology, defined via the Ontology Business process modelling languages typically enable the representation The growing adoption of IT-systems for the modelling and execution of b Process maps provide a high-level overview of an organisation's business Intermittently powered devices enable new applications in harsh or inacc The lattice model proposed by Denning in her seminal work provided secur Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.

Modern organisations recognise the importance of having tools to describe how to behave in order to reach their own objectives. Up to now, several languages have been proposed to represent business process models. In particular, BPMN collaboration models are used to describe distributed and complex scenarios where multiple participants interact via the exchange of messages. To overcome this issue, much effort has been devoted to formalise BPMN semantics by means of mapping it to other formal languages.

The most relevant is the one to Petri Nets provided by Dijkman et al. However, models resulting from a mapping inherit constraints given by the target formal language and so far none of them considers BPMN features such as the different abstraction levels i. Our investigation is based on a formal characterisation of the BPMN semantics specifically given for collaboration models. It is used to formally define a classification of these collaboration models according to relevant properties of the business process domain.

It is worth noticing that our work aims at providing a classification specific for the BPMN notation.


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